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Reflection on the Interaction of Parents and Children in Religious Socialization

종교 사회화에서의 부모와 자녀의 상호작용에 대한 성찰



윤 화 석 (백석대학교 부교수)drgideon@hanmail.net


     This article explores the reflection of the interaction of parents and children in religious socialization. Religious socialization generates a broad discussion on faith development according to a variety of learning possibilities, traditions and culture of the age that may occur in the area of ​​religion. The Relationship between parents and children in the Christian religious socialization should be considered in related being to orient God's community in partners and horizontal relationships within the journey of faith together. Prioritly, the Question is, how can be able to religious socialization?. Children's nurture and education, care and erecting think with the responsibilities and duties of parents. The possibility of a Christian religious socialization is possible through the expansion of the consciousness of Christian parents and churches. And the conversion of existing regional centered church and consciousness of Christian parents could occur through the kingdom perspective for the area of ​​all Christian life . Second, we discuss the behavior of reflection on the faith and life of the Christian parents.  The Reflection on the behavior type  of the faith and life  of the Christian parents is a key question about the possibility of practical actions on the contents of faith. A correspondance and difference between  the dimension of the knowledge and the practical dimension of belief in the gospel is due to appear through the consciousness and behavior of Christian parents. Third, we discuss the role of institutions for the religious socialization. We discuss the roles and responsibilities of institutions in homes and churches, schools and society.  The children of God in principle should be learn, practice, think, act, devote, serve as the children of God, when they grow up from birth. The children of God should not be pursued the goal of life belonging to the secular values. They must be overcome the values ​​of secular life through a target-oriented values ​​and life as a child of God who speaks in the Bible. Fourth, we discuss a reflection on the interaction of parents and children in religious socialization. Christian parents and children must cooperate and consult each other, share the attitudes and values of life. The parents and children continuelly to orientation a community of God based on a new understanding of the image od God. Fifth, we discuss the Reflection on contents for interactions between parents and children. The related interaction as Christian parents and childs  occurs at the fact that the simultaneously calling as a child of God.These discussions were summarized the role and identity of believers as individuals and communities around the information shown in Ephesians chapter 4 -6. Finally, the discussion on religious socialization is the orientation of a new direction for the current crisis of the Church in Korea.    


Key words: religious socialization, parents and children, interaction, reflexion, community of God.



The Relationship Between Parent-adolescent children Conflicts on Autonomy and Faith Maturity 

청소년의 자율성 관련 부모 갈등과 신앙성숙과의 관계



조 혜 정 (총신대학교 부교수)hjcho@chongshin.ac.kr


     The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' parent-child conflict with faith maturity. The subjects of the study were the 269 adolescent (147 boys & 122 girls) who were members of more than 50 local churches. Collected data wre analyzed by the PASW 18.0 program. The major findings of this study were as follows: First, there was no significant difference in adolescent's parent-child conflict according to gender. Second, in the younger age group of adolescent's, parent-child conflict was observed higher significant difference than the other group. Third, in under 5 years attending a local church cognitive faith maturity had significance with frequency of adolescent's parent-child conflict otherwise affective faith maturity and behavioral faith maturity had non significance.  Based on those findings, in order to reduce parent-child conflict and improve faith maturity, it needs to holistic approach for Christian faith maturity rather than to focus cognitive faith aspect and support Christian family to parenting efficiency with adolescent. 


Key words: Christian adolescents, autonomy, conflicts with parents, faith maturity.



Qualitative Research on Teacher's Educational Experience in Christian Alternative Schools: 

Based on Van Manen's Hermeneutic Phenomenological Methodology

기독교대안학교 교사의 교육체험에 대한 질적 연구: Max Van Manen의 해석학적 현상학을 중심으로




김 명 자 (백석대학교 강사) djaak3513@hanmail.net


     This study aims to understand the essence and meaning of educational experience of teacher in Christian alternative schools in terms of van Manens's hermeneutic phenomenological research method which reveals the structure of 'lived experience'. The essential themes that issued from this study are divided into the following 8 themes which constitute a semantic and sequential structure: ‘Having aspiration to be a good teacher,’ ‘Feeling a gap between reality and ideals,’ ‘Needing a rational system,’ ‘Needing to share the philosophy of education,’ ‘Having to integrate faith and learning,’ ‘Teaching with God’mind,’ ‘Talking according to a way of life and living a way of talking,’ ‘Needing absolutely teacher education programs.’ The meaning of 'teacher education experience' is thus as follows. The above-stated 8 themes can be divided into two aspects: the necessity of teacher education programs and the necessity of professional teacher training institute. First, coming to recognize the necessity of education which make the gospel realize in life, and thus that to integrate a curriculum in the christian world view and that of something more than professional knowledge, participants expressed the necessity of teacher education. Second, in spite of passion and sense of mission about their work, because of lack of teaching skills and of understanding about their students, participants were confronted with the confusion of identity and the loss of pride. This is the reason why they need, besides spirituality, intelligence and character, special teaching skills and thus professional teacher training institute which can teach them. That is to say, the ability to impart knowledge and skills is the essential qualification for desirable teachers. This research will be contributed to build a theoretical base to develop teacher education programs.  


Key words: Christian, alternative, alternative school, Christian alternative school, teacher education, lived experience, qualitative research.



Theological Reflection on "Descended into Hades" in the Apostles' Creed and its Religious Educational Suggestions

사도신경 “음부에 내려가사” 고백의 신학적 의의와 신앙교육적 제언



김 동 주 (호서대학교 부교수)djkbos@hoseo.edu


     Christ’s descent into the “hades(or hell)” in the Apostles’ Creed has been the most controversial issue in Church History. It originally meant the spiritual place of waiting for the messiah’s salvation or judgment after one’s death. Throughout the middle ages, the term ‘hades’ was translated into ‘inferos’ and the latter vocabulary into “hell” in modern English. This caused a serious problem of translation and misunderstanding of Christ’s action after his death. 

 While many Fathers of the early church taught that Christ literally descended into the hades to save the souls of Adam and faithful saints of Old Testament. But medieval Catholic Christianity marred its original meaning of victory in Christ by diverting its argument into theory of purgatory. The reformers in the sixteenth century argued that the descent into the hades of Christ is critical statement in Christian economy of salvation. For Luther, it meant the victory of Christ over the power of Satan, death, sin, darkness, etc. For Calvin, it is a spiritual statement of Christ’s bearing a severe suffering for our redemption. 

 Korean’s version of Apostle’s creed omitted the verse of Christ’s descent into the hades. Modern Christian education is needed to restore back to original state of the Creed and to teach the true meaning of Christ descent into the lowest place. Christ’s descent into hades is fundamental foundation for sake of human redemption and salvation because he bore all the burdens, curses, and punishments that was once for the sinners. In the lowest place, Christ accomplished all aspects of required suffering for human redemption and broke the evil power of darkness and death by his divine and eternal Life.  


Key words: Apostles' Creed, Hades, Christ's descent into Hell, Redemption, Suffering, Christology.



A Study on the Method and the Validity of the Church Driven Alternative Education for the sake of Succession of the Educational Mission of the Korean Protestant Church

개신교 교회의 교육선교 계승을 위한 교회주도형 대안교육의 방안 및 타당성 연구



박 경 하 (목원대학교 강사) pjwkids@hanmail.net


     This study aims to explore the feasibility of a way to efficiently the korean protestant church inherited the mission of the early protestant missionaries have achieved educational mission. In order to explore the feasibility of these examines the history of Protestant missionaries introduced the initial training missions accomplished. And the korean protestant church has been seeking an alternative education plan how about to perform the mission of educational missions succession in freedom of religion controversy in the field of Korea public education. Korean protestant churches are facing many difficult circumstances to deal with the mission of educational missions. Therefore, the mission of education through the beautiful tradition of protestantism, that studied the feasibility of alternative education for carrying out the Great Commission that educational mission.


Key words: alternative education, alternative school, Protestant church alternative education, education mission, mission school.



A Study on Comtemporary Confirmation Renewal through Church's Historical Initiation

현대 개신교 교회의 입교 회복을 위한 연구:  입교예식과 교육의 역사적 전통을 중심으로


  

임 영 택 (협성대학교 교수) ytlim@uhs.ac.kr

양 승 준 (협성대학교 강사) wesley4865@naver.com 


     The purpose of this paper is to develop a rite of confirmation and education curriculum for youth group in the faith community. Youth live in the twenty-first century, to form Christian identity and faith so that they are eligible to belong to church community as faithful Christians. In the twenty-first century, Korean churches are occupied with a crisis. For this reason, faith communities begin to lose their functions and the educational ministry, which is able to be realized only in the faith community, fades away. If a rite and education for confirmation is not practiced in the faith community, the future of Korean church would be vague and handing down a legacy of faith to next generation would be a difficult task. To prevent and overcome this problem, This paper suggest rite of confirmation should intentionally educate story of the Bible, history of Christianity and the subject of baptism to adolescence in order for them not only to experience conversion and growth in worship and ritual but also to be real Christians through strict principles and disciplines. In particular, Korean churches need to adopt a program and rite of confirmation which gives opportunities of learning, spiritual experience, and discipline to adolescence who are in the process of building their identity and faith formation. Even though it is a phased program, it is more crucial to maintain the balance of all necessary factors in a complementary way.  I am confident that rite of confirmation will be the suggested alternative offering the opportunity of education and practice which enables adolescence to be faithful Christians and to join faith community.


Key words: confirmation, rite of confirmation, identity, faith formation, education.



A Research on the Actual Condition and Demands of the Families Practicing Christian Home-schooling for Young Children

기독교 유아 홈스쿨링 가정의 실태 및 요구도 조사



유 희 진 (총신대학교 강사) yucano1@hanmail.net                                  

정 희 영 (총신대학교 교수) hyjeoung56@hanmail.net


     This study aims to providing the basic data and implications for educational direction that can be used when developing Christian home schooling curriculum  for young children. The study examined the actual condition and demands of the families practicing Christian Home-schooling for young children. We used a  qualitative study to collect and analyze data  through in-depth interviews of five Christian home schooling families. The results are as follows: First, the Christian home-schooling families are starting an education in accordance with religious beliefs, but they turned out to have insufficient understanding of Christian education. Second, it revealed that they set the educational goals vaguely and pursue holistic development, while they do not integrate faith and learning by Christian. Third, they wanted an education with an emphasis on creativity and personality as well as spiritual growth. Also they wanted the curriculum that reflects the Korea situation. Fourth, although they have issues with the lack of personal time and time management, they felt significantly higher satisfaction and had a positive evaluation in education. Therefore, the development of a Korean-style Christian Home-schooling curriculum  and Christian parents education is needed to raise awareness of Christian integration education from the Christian perspective.


Key words: home-schooling, Christian curriculum, Christian early childhood education.



A Study on  the Justification of University Curricula on Marriage Preparation Education and 

Christian Education for the Eco-Boomers

에코세대를 위한 대학에서의 결혼준비교육과 기독교적 교육의 당위성 연구



이 정 관 (안양대학교 조교수) arame@anyang.ac.kr

이 성 훈 (안양대학교 부교수) shlee@anyang.ac.kr


     With the rapid changes in our society within recent years in the institution of marriage  which has seen a surge in divorce with a 23.5% divorce rate within the first 4 years and 19% within 9 years, research on this phenomenon is necessitated. It may be postulated that the absence of marriage preparation  education has contributed to the recent high divorce rates. The age group  represented among university students grants a prime opportunity to deliver educational programs for marriage preparation to strengthen the health of families. In the eco-boomers where individualism is highly valued, they are also called the give-up 3 generation because they give up love, marriage and having children. The important topic for this generation is not love and marriage but careers and economic activity. Even after starting careers, marriage and starting families are being avoided. Furthermore, due to habits of high consumerism, young people are not prepared for the financial responsibilities of marriage and often are still reliant on parents’ financial support. For the eco-boomers, one important concern  is marriage preparation.

This study proposes to discuss educational programs offered in university for students in preparing for satisfactory marriage and married life. The purpose of this study is to offer university students an educational program that will assist in marriage preparation from selecting a suitable partner, developing a good  relationship, and offer step-by-step suggestions for healthy marriage preparation. For this purpose there will be an initial examination of marriage  preparation and its necessity. After examination  of appropriate marriage education and defining marriage, a justification will be suggested for Christian-based marriage preparation education within Christian universities to help in the lives of the eco-boomers so as to create higher quality lives and family relationships in building happier and healthier  marriages and families.


Key words: Christian education. eco-boomers, Christian, marriage, marriage preparation, university, university student.



A Case Study of Christian Alternative School 

Teacher's Collective Reflection on Their Teaching 

기독교대안학교 교사공동체의 집단적 수업성찰 사례연구


 이 정 미 (한동대학교 객원교수) jlee5528@hanmail.net


     The purpose of this study is to identify the implications for teaching improvement by the Christian alternative school teacher's collective reflection on their teaching. For this purpose nine teachers in a Christian alternative school at Gyeonggi-do participated in this study. Six of them opened their classroom teaching. The study is proceeded in introducing of the purpose of the study, preparing and up loading a lesson plan before teaching, preparing some reflective discussion points after observation of the opened classroom and its video, and sharing together their reflections about the teaching. The process of the reflective discussion time is proceeded as follows; a self reflection of the teacher opened his or her class teaching. sharing some impressive things observed by the participant teachers. and discussing about questions and topics to be discussed more in depth about the classroom teaching. The sharing and discussions is recorded by the use of  recorder. It is transcribed into the research document. The content of the document is analyzed by the use of qualitative research method. The result of this study showed that the very practical problems in teaching is raised at the teachers reflective discussion and it helped the participant to see the focused teaching through different perspectives and understand it in depth. The reflective discussion also helped the participant teachers to have an opportunity to develop their professional teaching ability by seeking better teaching practices by the collective discussion from the actual teaching context. Therefore, the meaning of this study is to show the possibility of overcoming the superficial discussion found in the traditional evaluation of teaching by an outside consultant based on the objective teaching standards.


Key words: Christian alternative school, teaching, reflection, discussion,  improvement.



A Critical Research on Parent Education Curriculum for the Succession of Christian Faith

신앙의 대잇기를 위한 부모교육과정의 비판적 연구



 장 순 애 (영남신학대학교 조교수)soonaech@hanmail.net


     The purpose of this thesis is to propose the guideline to develop teaching materials for parent education focusing the succession of christian faith. It was made in three steps. The first step is to seek the key components that affect on the inheritance of faith in a parent-children relationship.  I found 4 elements base on Will There be Faith?(Thomas H. Groome, 2011) and Will Our Children have Faith?(John H. Westerhoff III, 1976): Christian Story and Vision, fully reciprocal  Dialogue process or the dialogical relationship between equals, concrete skills for improvement of parenting, a public interest or contribution toward Kingdom of God. Next step, I have done a critical analysis seven different kinds of printed materials, which have been widely used as a textbook for parent education in the korean churches, in terms of 4 elements. Finally I proposed some guidelines to develop teaching materials for parent education focusing on the succession of christian faith.


Key words: Christian parent education, Thomas H. Groome, John H. Westerhoff, succession of faith, story and vision, reciprocal dialogue, public faith.



The Effects of Spiritual Maturity:  The Length of Religious Life, Parent Attachment 

and the Knowledge of God

신앙성숙에 미치는 영향 분석: 신앙경력, 부모애착, 하나님 이미지



조 윤 영 (문경대학교 강사)salom602@daum.net 

최 봉 도 (계명대학교 조교수)bdchoi@kmu.ac.kr


     The goal of this study is to analyze what effects the length of religious life of Christian university students and parent attachment in their childhood have on their knowledge of God, and what influences the knowledge of God have on spiritual maturity. In this study, the knowledge of God through father-child attachment and the knowledge of God through mother-child attachment are analyzed separately. Spiritual maturity of individuals is divided into cognitive spiritual maturity, affective spiritual maturity, and intentional spiritual maturity, and they are analyzed respectively. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 428 Christian university students, and this study was analyzed using SPSS18.0. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, regression analysis were carried out based on the questionnaire survey. The results are as follows. Firstly, the duration of religious life has positive effects on the knowledge of God and cognitive spiritual maturity. There is, however, a correlation between the duration of a university student's religious life and his or her knowledge of God as well as cognitive spiritual maturity. However, the duration of religious life does not influence affective spiritual maturity, which represents loyalty to God and trust in God; nor does it determine intentional spiritual maturity that emphasizes the practical level of life. Second, parent attachment provides the basis for the knowledge of God. In this study, father-child attachment influences the knowledge of God of children. The degree of the knowledge of God varies according to the security of father-child attachment. By contrast, the mother-child attachment does not influence the knowledge of God. This study shows the importance of the relationship between fathers and children in order to build the positive knowledge of God. Third, the knowledge of God has meaningful effects on cognitive, affective, and intentional spiritual maturity. The way children recognize and accept God has a decisive effect on spiritual maturity. A positive knowledge of God influences not only the development of the concept of God but the religious behavior and the life of Christians.  This study demonstrates that a positive knowledge of God and spiritual maturity can be achieved by having an enduring and healthy religious life as well as a close attachment to a father at home. 


Key words: length of religious life, father-child attachment, mother-child attachment, the knowledge of God, spiritual maturity.


 

Character Education in Christianity

인성교육, 기독교는 어떻게 할 것인가



한 미 라 (호서대학교 교수)mrhahn2022@gmail.com


     Unusual violence and profanity in today's school where character education should be carried out  finally reached negative territory where harassing and even beating teachers by the student taking place. And this tells us now the end of training. Whatever the reason is the awareness of the need for character education of the public were overwhelming. In other words, people answered that there is a problem with humanity and morality level of students. This character education may not realize that they need to give only to children and adolescents. It calls for teacher training as a leader under the law of promoting character education. It is also required to understand the human nature (essence) to be refreshed periodically. Consequently, if Christian schools, religious groups and the government want to make a success in their character education that taking effect from this year, the three measures were proposed.

1. The autonomy of teachers should be improved, self-esteem, expertise

2. Character- social-emotional education for teachers and parents is needed

3. The trinity curriculum for character education is to develop and collaborate each other under the home-school-church network

Children and youth are the future of Korea. And it is also the future of the Church in Korea. Government, as well as, schools and churches not only restore the courtesy and responsibility and compliance with historical consciousness and sense of community, but also pour the whole devotion to  heal the next generations of South Korea in unison. The work is now given as mission by God for the Korean Christians and the Korean churches. 


Key words: character education, the law of promoting character education, christian education.  



Biblical Foundations of the Character Education

기독교 인성교육의 성경적 기초



강 용 원 (고신대학교 교수) ywkang@kosin.ac.kr


     This study examines Matthew 5:3-12, Galatians 5:22-23, and 2 Peter 1:5-7 to identify the biblical foundations of character education.  Based on these verses, the following conclusions are made: First, Christian character education should not be a moralized character education. Christian character education should presuppose the relationship with God. Second, subdivisions of virtues are to be considered, but a pursuit of integration is more important. Third, Christian character education on paradoxical virtues needs to be strengthened. Fourth, more strategical approaches will be needed.  A close cooperation among family, church and school is indispensable. Fifth, if virtue-centered character education is inevitable, then a God-oriented, others-oriented, self-oriented framework can be useful alternative. Sixth, Christian character education should avoid excessively subdivided or conceptualized virtues. Christian character education should be praxis-oriented. 


Key words: beatitudes, fruits of Holy Spirit, divine nature, character education, Christian character education.

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